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Review Article

IJMDC. 2024; 8(1): 415-423

Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Management of Cluster headache; A systematic Review

Rofayda Mansour Ahmad Mohamad, Nouf Salem Albalawi, Rahaf Masoud Albalawi, Nawaf Farhan Alghamdi, Naif Ibrahim Alzahrani, Hanan Ali Atafi, Hotoon Kamel Alghaythee, Alyaa Mohammed Izaldin Haider, Zainab Esameldeen Abujamal, Alhanouf Radhyan Alruwili, Zahraa Hussain Aljeshi, Majed Mohammad Qaysi, Hosam Hadi Awaji.


Cluster headache (CH) is intricately linked to diverse risk factors, spanning hereditary, environmental, and lifestyle elements. This systematic study, guided by PRISMA guidelines, delves into the prevalence, risk factors, and management of CH. Examining English-language articles from 2010 to 2023 via PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Embase, our findings reveal a significant association between cluster headaches and factors including family history, smoking, alcohol consumption, male predominance, and head trauma. Notably, a reevaluation of sex discrimination in familial cases is warranted, given the observed female predominance in familial history and CH association studies. Reviewing 739 studies, 7 met inclusion criteria, predominantly utilizing surveys and national database analyses (n=7). Improving our grasp of diagnosis and treatment holds promise for future evaluation and management. Our conclusion underscores global variability in CH prevalence, urging more rigorous population-based surveys. The substantial and persistent burdens associated with CH, from suicidality to economic stress, underscore the need for comprehensive research and intervention. CH transcends the label of a mere "trigeminal autonomic headache," showcasing a diverse spectrum of attack and bout characteristics across countries and ethnicities. Despite the global efficacy of current diagnostic criteria, CH emerges as a dynamic illness, demonstrating progression or regression over time. This underscores the necessity for further research in comprehending its trajectory.

Key words: Cluster headache, Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia, Headache, Genetics, Family history, Heritability, Heredity, Inheritance

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