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Original Article

Protective effect of aqueous extract of Xylopia aethiopica fruits on carbon tetrachloride-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

Olusola B. Adewale, Noghayin E. Jerry Orhue.

Objectives: The burden of renal diseases is growing every day, and there is need to speed up research toward realizing the goal of a safe, cheap, and readily available remedy against this scourge. The objective of the study was to investigate the protective effect of aqueous extract of the fruit of Xylopia aethiopica against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced kidney damage in rats.
Methods: Thirty-six rats divided into 6 groups were used for the investigation. Group I served as control, Groups II, III, and IV were pre-treated for 21 days with aqueous extract of the fruit of X. aethiopica at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively, prior to a single intraperitoneal administration of CCl4. Animals in groups V received only the fruit extract at a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight while animals in group VI were given only CCl4. Animals were sacrificed 24 h after the administration of CCl4. The kidney function tests were performed in addition to histopathological evaluations.
Results: Significant increase in the plasma levels of creatinine and urea, and a significant decrease in plasma total protein and albumin following CCl4 administration were detected. CCl4 caused a significant elevation in malondialdehyde and a decrease in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in the kidney. These deleterious effects were significantly prevented by pre-treatment with the X. aethiopica extract.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that X. aethiopica protection of the kidney against CCl4-induced damage may be connected with the rich antioxidant potential of the plant.

Key words: Antioxidant, carbon tetrachloride, nephrotoxicity, Xylopia aethiopica

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