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Review Article

IJMDC. 2024; 8(1): 396-403

Diagnosis and treatment of hepatorenal syndrome; a systematic review

Naveed Noor Khan, Mohammed Ibrahim Bin Ibrahim, Abdullah Khalid Albarrak, Abdulrahman Ahmad Alahmadi, Amnah Hussain Hamrani, Faisal Zuhair Al Khudhari, Mahmoud Mohammed Aljohani, Nisreen Ibraheem Althebity, Rawan Naffaa Alharbi, Reem Zaki Alawaji, Shoog Khalid Aloleeit, Waad Salmah Alatwai.


Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a severe form of functional renal failure associated with reduced renal blood flow, predominantly affecting patients with ascites and cirrhosis, showcasing normal kidney histology. This complication of advanced liver disease is marked by a grim prognosis, with survival typically spanning weeks or months. Diagnosis hinges on a blend of clinical and laboratory criteria, given the absence of definitive biomarkers. This systematic study sought to formulate guidelines for HRS diagnosis and treatment. Data, drawn from PubMed/Medline, Scopus databases, and Embase, encompassed English-language articles from 2010 to 2023, adhering to PRISMA guidelines. Among 457 studies, seven met eligibility criteria, employing surveys and national database analyses as prevalent methods. Current care standards involved albumin and terlipressin treatment, with continuous intravenous terlipressin administration proving equally effective and better-tolerated than boluses. Despite its 40-50% success rate, predictors included serum bilirubin and creatinine levels, blood pressure, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome presence. Liver transplant stands as the sole curative avenue, while alternative therapies like dopamine, noradrenaline, renal and liver replacement therapy, and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt are under evaluation. Ongoing research into advanced remedies is imperative, given current treatment limitations. Considerations such as antibiotic prophylaxis in severe cirrhosis with low protein ascitic fluid levels and volume expansion with albumin during spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and high-volume paracentesis further underscore the multifaceted approach required in managing HRS. This study advocates for continuous exploration of innovative therapies and emphasizes the pivotal role of liver transplant consideration for eligible patients.

Key words: Diagnosis, treatment, hepatorenal syndrome, Saudi Arabia, systematic review

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