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Correlation between house dust mites’ sensitization and allergic diseases - A retrospective study of Saudi Arabia

Moufag Mohammed Saeed Tayeb, Emad A Koshak, Faisal Khalid Alhothali, Mustafa Mohammad Ayyad, Hisham Mohammed Almuwallad, Saleh Jaman Alghamdi, Abdulaziz Abdullah Al Nahdi, Anas Muwaffaq Tayeb.

Background: Globally, inhalant allergen sensitization (IAS) in allergic diseases (ADs) is commonly associated with indoor allergens, mainly house dust mites (HDMs).

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association between HDM sensitization (HDM-SN) and ADs.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted which included all patients with allergies, >15 years of age, and seen over a 1-year period at the Allergy Center, Lalune clinics, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Results of serum specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) to 30 common inhalant allergens (INHs) were collected by medical students. Severity of sensitization was classified as 1–6 (1–2 being mild, 3–4 being moderate, and 5–6 being severe). Medical records of patients with HDM-SN were reviewed to determine any clinical diagnosis of ADs and other associated IAS.

Results: A total of 55 adults with HDM-SN, 34 males (62%) and 21 females (38%), with an age range of 15>56 years were studied. ADs associated with HDM-SN were allergic rhinitis (AR) (27%), asthma (22%), allergic conjunctivitis (AC) (18%), atopic dermatitis (ATD) (16%), allergic sinusitis (9%), and chronic urticaria (8%). The average severity class of HDM-SN in our sample was moderate (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [2.3] and Dermatophagoides farinae [2.2]). Other IAS found to be associated with HDM-SN were cockroaches (13.86%), Alternaria (12.4%), cats (12.4%), Bermuda (11.67%), and mesquite (10.21%).

Conclusion: Average HDM-SN severity class was moderate in the studied group of patients (early to middle adult ages). HDM-SN is always associated with other IAS (INH-SNs) which explains the importance of obtaining an all-INH panel in patients with HDM-SN. IAS which most frequently had an association with HDM-SN was cockroaches, Alternaria, and cats with two outdoor allergens Bermuda, and mesquite, following closely. HDM-SN is usually associated with multiple ADs mainly involving INHs including AR, asthma, and AC, and less commonly ATD, sinusitis, and chronic urticaria.

Key words: Houses Dust Mites; Inhalant Allergen Sensitization; Allergens; Allergic Diseases; Skin Prick Test

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