Background: A positive association of coagulation factors has been implicated with the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD), and so have the associations of the ABO blood groups.
Aims and Objectives: This study was done in IHD patients and normal individuals to assess the variations of coagulation factors among the different ABO blood groups.
Materials and Methods: This study included 50 IHD male patients taken as cases and 50 age-matched and sex-matched, apparently healthy males taken as controls. Blood samples were collected from subjects for the analysis of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and fibrinogen levels and also for the determining the ABO blood group.
Results: Majority of the cases belonged to blood group A (36%) while a majority of the controls belonged to blood group O (44%). Among the cases, individuals with blood group A were found to have significantly higher fibrinogen levels, and blood group O individuals had the least fibrinogen levels. Similar pattern was also observed among the controls. The PT and aPTT values were minimum in individuals of blood group A while maximum values were observed in blood group O individuals; both in cases and controls.
Conclusion: PT and aPTT indirectly assess the coagulant activity of the different factors of the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, respectively. Shortened levels of PT and aPTT and higher levels of fibrinogen are seen in blood group A individuals. Thus, it can be said that among the various risks associated with the development of IHD, ABO blood group is also one of them wherein blood group A individuals are more likely to the develop the disease while blood group O confers protection against IHD.
Key words: Ischemic Heart Disease; ABO Blood Groups; Prothrombin Time; Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time