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Original Article

IJMDC. 2023; 7(12): 1639-1645

The effect of weight loss and dietary habits on glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

Abdulghani Al-Saeed, Nawaf Salah Ayad Mohamed, Abdulrahman Abduljabbar Al-Sarari, Huda Hassan Osman, Raghad Aljeaid, Shuruq Ahmed Al-hissi, Abdulrahman Bashir Hussamuldin, Reyof Nasser Al-Qumaizi, Yara Majed Alzahrani.


Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a prevalent chronic metabolic disorder associated with substantial mortality and morbidity rates. This study, conducted across various regions of Saudi Arabia (SA), aimed to assess the impact of weight loss and dietary practices on glycemic control among adult individuals with T2DM.
Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 600 adult residents diagnosed with T2DM was carried out through an online questionnaire. Exclusions were made for individuals with type 1 diabetes, those in pregnancy, and those under 18 years old. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, with a significance level set at p ≤ 0.05.
Results: The study cohort comprised 50.2% males, with 32.2% aged 51 years and older, and 42.0% falling into the overweight category. Our findings revealed statistically significant relationships between adhering to a dietary plan and its impact on blood glucose levels (p = 0.001), as well as between dietary habits and blood glucose control (p = 0.047). Furthermore, significant associations were observed between dietary knowledge and skills and blood glucose control (p = 0.001), body mass index (BMI) and blood glucose control (p = 0.001), and weight changes attributed to the current diet and blood glucose control (p = 0.004).
Conclusion: In conclusion, this study underscores the importance of dietary adherence, knowledge, and skills in managing T2DM. Notably, our findings emphasize the significant relationships between following a dietary plan, addressing eating problems, acquiring dietary knowledge and skills, managing BMI, and adapting to weight changes within the context of the current diet, all of which play a pivotal role in achieving optimal glycemic control among adults with T2DM in SA.

Key words: Blood Glucose Control, body mass index, glycemic control, dietary habits, Saudi Arabia.

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