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Original Research

Early prediction of nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases in Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

G Srinivasa Nageswara Rao, J Abayambigai, E Sruti, K R Sowmiya.


Background: It is well established that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at increased risk for chronic kidney and cardiovascular diseases. Diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases at an early stage in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is difficult. Therefore, biomarker for estimation of renal function was chosen.

Aims and Objectives: To evaluate serum cystatin C and its correlation with biochemical, clinical, and anthropometric parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls.

Materials and Methods: The levels of serum cystatin C were evaluated in 100 subjects (50 with type 2 diabetes and 50 controls) of age group 40–70 years and were measured using particle-enhanced immunonephelometry.

Results: The levels of serum cystatin C were found to be significantly increased in patients with diabetes mellitus (0.97 ± 0.19 mg/L; P < 0.01) than healthy controls (0.84 ± 0.1 mg/L). In this study, it was found that few diabetes patients with normoalbuminuria with elevated levels of serum cystatin C and cystatin C–based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The levels of serum cystatin C correlated positively with eGFR, serum creatinine, and systolic blood pressure and showed negative correlation with estimated creatinine clearance and no association with body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and diastolic blood pressure.

Conclusion: Measurement of the levels of serum cystatin C is a useful, practical, noninvasive technique for the evaluation of renal involvement and might be related with a risk for cardiovascular events in patients without nephropathy in the course of diabetes, especially in patients with normoalbuminuria.

Key words: Serum Cystatin C; Diabetic Nephropathy; Estimated Creatinine Clearance; Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate

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