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The imbalance of body electrolytes in HIV patients using highly active antiretroviral therapy

Ezinne Promise Chukwu,Uche Nkem Okeke,Sunday Moses Akuaden,Anekwe Somtochukwu Paul,Udodi Chiemelie Chisom,Oluchukwu Valentine Uchenna,Onuche Jacinta Nekwuojo,Chioma Calista Ezema,Favour Uchechukwu Onwuasoanya,Nweke Sixtus Chinecherem,Taye Olusola Bello,Chinecherem Maudlyne Nnam,Etu Esther Ifeyinwa,Mercy Chinwendu Obiechefu,Musa Adnan,Oluwayinka Stephen Olayemi,Dosunmu Deborah Boluwatife,Chiagozie Chinyere Umeano,Ikenna Kingsley Uchendu.




Abstract

The retrovirus named HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) targets the immune system, which makes it more vulnerable to numerous illnesses and some cancers that healthy immune systems can combat. The worst phase of HIV infection, AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome), can take a variety of people between one and twenty years to emerge if untreated. HIV is frequently spread by unprotected sexual contact, blood transfusions, mother-to-child transmission, etc. HIV/AIDS symptoms include weight loss, skin problems, achy muscles, recurrent fevers. Prevention of HIV/AIDS includes use of condom, avoidance of exposure to implicated body fluids, HIV prevention programs to stop vertical HIV transmission. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which reduces the disease's progression, is the main form of treatment. The HAART's effect on the kidney results in electrolytes imbalance. Electrolytes are substances that, when dissolved in water, transmit electricity and control blood pressure, pH level, neuron and muscle activity, and maintain tissues hydrated. Irregularity in the body's electrolyte content is known as an electrolyte imbalance which can be caused by fluid lose, inadequate water consumption, certain medications. Symptoms of electrolyte imbalances include, irregular heartbeat, fatigue, headaches, confusion, numbness and tingling. Diagnosis of Electrolyte Imbalance in HIV/AIDS Patients are done using kidney function test, pinch test and electrocardiogram. Treatment and management of electrolytes imbalance in HIV/AIDS patients include drinking water, oral rehydration drinks, sodium chloride, intravenous fluids, oral medications and supplements such as gluconate, magnesium oxide, use of dialysis. HAART induced electrolytes imbalance are seen in Tenofovir, which is associated with severe hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia.

Key words: Retrovirus, HIV/AIDS, HARRT, Electrolyte imbalance, Kidney function test






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