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Research Article

Open Vet J. 2023; 13(10): 1259-1267

Syringe immersion test as in vitro bioassay against Rhipicephalus microplus: Macrocyclic lactones dose-response relationship

Diego Robaina, Jessica Caballero, Gonzalo Suárez.

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For the diagnosis of tick sensitivity against different acaricides there are in vitro and in vivo methods. The main in vivo method, the stable test, is considered a defining methodology. In Uruguay the Rhipicephalus microplus strain Mozo is used as the standard susceptible strain by the regulation authorities. In vitro techniques applied both on adult and larvae stages are validated by FAO and can serve as an orientative diagnosis of the resistance profile developed in field conditions. An alternative was proposed as a modification of the larval immersion test (LIT) where syringes were used seeking to reduce the work necessary to perform the original technique, resulting in the Syringes Immersion Test (SIT).
The aim of this study was to expand the SIT for characterization of sensitivity to Macrocyclic Lactones in R. microplus and provide information on field strain sensitivity of R. microplus larvae.
Log-logistic dose-response model for Ivermectin, Doramectin and Moxidectin were performed using concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 20.0 ppm (n=6, 3 replicates for level on each drug). Larvae sensitivity results were determined after 24 hours of incubation at 27 °C / 90% RH, counting live/dead larvae. The final model will be decided as the best fit according to the model selection AIC criteria for each drug. Pharmacodynamic parameters (lower limit, slope and effective dose at different levels [ED20, ED50, ED80 and ED95] and its 95% confidence interval) were considered for drug comparison.
Dose-response models were fitted for IVM, DRM and MOX. MOX had the lowest ED50 of the three drugs implying that MOX is of higher potency (two folds) when compared to IVM and DRM on R. microplus larvae, using SIT. DRM has a different slope compared to IVM and MOX (p < 0.05), while IVM and MOX showed a similar slope (p > 0.05).
This study allowed to standardize the technique for larvae immersion for each macrocyclic lactone, granting a new tool for in vitro test as a screening technique for tick sensitivity.

Key words: Drugs, Ectoparasiticides, Pharmacodynamics, Resistance, Ticks

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