The current state of inter-ethnic relations indicates that, along with the processes of globalization, there is a reverse process - de-globalization, which is reflected in the desire of peoples to preserve their national identity. The ethnopsychological differences between nations and peoples are regarded as one of the factors causing the emergence of multicultural conflicts.
On the basis of the analysis of literature the article under review highlights the most characteristic features of representatives of European and Russian cultures. The authors proceeded from the assumption that ethnopsychological features are determined both archetypically and ethnogenetically. Myths, legends, tales, epics, rituals, conspiracies, archaeological, psycholinguistic, socio-anthropological, historical data in the context of Jung's theory make it possible to recreate some of the essential ethno-psychological characteristics of a certain nation. As a result of the use of this approach, individual features inherent in Europeans and Russians were highlighted, which made it possible to draw more general conclusions:
1. Ethnopsychological features form patterns in which system-forming factors can be identified.
2. For Europeans, the main factor in the complex of national characteristics is the desire for dominance; among Russians it is the Maternal Complex, which is an unconscious striving for existence in the most favorable environment.
3. The names of the features of the national psyche or national character of different peoples may be the same according to the dictionary meanings but have different psychological content.
4. Misunderstandings between representatives of different ethnic groups may arise due to a different understanding of the same traits.
Key words: Ethnos, archetypes, national psyche, national character.