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Detection of Simulated Periodontal Bone Defects Using Digital Images. An in vitro Study

Rafael Scaf de Molon, Mario Henrique Arruda Verzola, Talita Mesquita Paquier, Juliana Aparecida Najarro Dearo Morais-Camillo, Ivy Kiemle Trindade-Suedam, Leonor de Castro Monteiro Loffredo, Gulnara Scaf.

Abstract
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the periodontal bone defects created only mechanically and by combined mechanical and
chemical techniques.
Materials and Methods: The samples comprised 24 hemi-mandibles from pigs, which were allocated into 3 groups; G1 (before acid application), G2 (after acid application and G3 (without bone defect and acid treatment). Periodontal bone defects were created with round burs between the second and third pre-molar. The radiographs were taken using the Visualix eHD sensor. The central ray was perpendicular to the sensor and to the hemi-mandible at a 40 cm focal-spot to sensor distance (settings 70 kVp, 10 mA and 15 impulses). After the defects were created in groups G1 and G2, they were treated with 100% perchloric acid for 48 hours. Images were zoomed to the level of 125% and interpreted by three examiners. Sensitivity and specificity were computed for the detection of periodontal bone defects with acid application and created using only round burs. The examiner’s radiographic interpretation produced a diagnosis based on a five-point confidence scale. If the interpretation received the scores 1 or 2, it was concluded that no bone defect was present, whereas the scores 3, 4, or 5 were considered to reflect evidence of a bone defect.
Results: There was no difference between groups G1 (Sen -95%CI=0.9167; Spec -95%CI=0.9167) and G2 (Sen -95%CI=0.8333; Spec -95%CI=0.9167).
Conclusions: There is no difference in the detection of periodontal bone defects created using round burs and defects created using round burs followed by acid treatment.

Key words: Periodontal disease, dental radiography, digital radiography, alveolar bone loss


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