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Anti-Inflammatory and Gene Expression Studies of Terminalia chebula Extracts against Interleukins and TNF

Mustafa M. Farhan, Saeed Arrak Turkey, Nadhim M.H.

Abstract
Aims: Since ages, several plant extracts and Ayurvedic formulations were used to treat ailments and such studies were well documented in the recent decades. Even some of the plants were screened for their efficacy as immunomodulators to restore and rejuvenate the immune system. The present study deals in screening for the possible healing effects of Terminalia chebula on IL-2 and IFN-╬│ levels.
Methods: The raw and dried fruits of the sample were pulverized finely and extracted with methanol. Following which their aqueous solutions are reextracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform to study the possible cytotoxic effects. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells were used throughout the study to measure the effect of extracts on nitric oxide (NO) production using Griess method. Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-╬▒ were studied by real time PCR quantification along with estimation of IL-1╬▓ and IL-6 cytokine levels using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: The chloroform extract showed maximum NO inhibition at about 18.31▒ 1.6╬╝mol/L. In accordance to the above result, COX2 and TNF-╬▒ were found to be downregulated by 12 and 7 fold respectively at 100╬╝g/mL (P < 0.005). Chloroform extract significantly reduced IL-1╬▓ levels to 21.23 ▒ 0.21pg/ml (100╬╝g/mL) and also lowered the levels of IL-6 to 45.67▒ 3.31pg/ml (100╬╝g/ml)
Conclusion: The present study confirmed the positive effect of the chloroform extract in reducing the NO secretion and also by showing an inhibition in the expression of COX2, IL-1╬▓, IL-6, and TNF-╬▒. Thus to conclude Terminalia chebula could be used as the best anti-inflammatory candidate drug in addition to the many chemical compounds available in the medical markets.

Key words: Terminalia, Antiinflammation, real time PCR, COX2, IL-6



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