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Research Article

Novel eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using clove and cardamom extracts and cytotoxic and antimicrobial efficacies against oral pathogens- In vitro study

Abirami Selvaraj, Aravind Kumar Subramanian*, Ashwin Mathew George,Rajeshkumar Shanmugam.


Background: Green synthesized nanoparticles are perceived as an inexpensive, safe & ecologically beneficent approach
to control pathogenic oral microbes compared to conventional methods. In the current study, silver nano particles (AgNPs)
were effectively synthesised using clove and cardamom plant extracts.
Methods: In the present study, aqueous silver nitrate was reacted with the clove, cardamom extracts and characterization
was analyzed using UV-vis spectrophotometer and TEM analysis. Clove and cardamom reinforced silver nanoparticles were
examined at 25 µL, 50 µL and 100 µL concentrations for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus,
Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus species and Candida albicans. Cytotoxicity was assessed using brine shrimp assays.
Results: The formation of AgNPs was observed as shifting in color from orange-red color to dark brown at the end of the
day three. Reducing silver ions to AgNPs, as shown by UV-vis spectroscopy, has produced an emission peak at 462 nm. TEM
imaging showed that the particles were spherical and varied in size from 5-20 nm. Antimicrobial activity of the AgNPs at
100 µL was superior to that of antibiotics against Streptococcus mutans. Excellent antibacterial activity was shown by a
zone of inhibition that was closer to that of antibiotics when examined against Lactobacillus. Staphylococcus aureus and
Candida albicans were also moderately impacted. There was no evidence of cytotoxicity.
Conclusion: Silver nanoparticles reinforced with clove and cardamom exhibited no cytotoxicity and showed promise as a
potent antibacterial agent against oral pathogensKey words: silver nanoparticles.

Key words: AgNPs, clove& cardamom, antimicrobial activity,cytotoxicity

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