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Incidence and Comparison of Suicide in Various Phases of the Menstrual Cycle: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Yara A. Alnashwan, Ahmed Mustafa Rashid, Syed Sarmad Javaid, Magdy A. Kharoshah, M. Arun, Haneil Larson Dsouza, Alok Atreya, Ritesh George Menezes.


Background: Suicide is a global health concern. There are reproductive health-related factors that are responsible for increasing the risk of female suicide. There are a number of studies examining the association between suicide and the menstrual cycle, but still, there are no conclusive findings. Aim: We aimed to pool data from all the studies reporting data on suicides and the menstrual cycle phase to report the following outcomes: incidence of suicidal deaths in the menstrual, secretory, and proliferative phases, and to find out whether the burden of suicide in the menstrual phase in particular, was more at a young age (18-35 years) or middle age (36-50years). Methods: The PubMed database was extensively searched from inception till 12th April 2022. The data for the number of events occurring for each outcome were pooled using random-effects model and forest plots were created. Results: Five articles were shortlisted for inclusion in our analysis. Incidence of suicide in the secretory phase was highest at 45.2% [95% CI, 0.367–0.537]. The incidence of suicide, when occurring in the menstrual phase, was reported to be 68.4% (95 CI, 0.317–1.052) and 31.6% (95 CI, -0.052.3–0.68) for young-aged and middle-aged victims, respectively. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the menstrual phase has a lower risk of mortality due to suicide when compared to the other two phases of the menstrual cycle. Nevertheless, when suicide occurred in the menstrual phase, the incidence of suicide among the younger age-group was higher than for those in the middle age-group.

Key words: Women’s health issues, Menstruation; Suicide, Uterine histopathology

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