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Open Vet J. 2023; 13(6): 742-752

Clinical findings using echocardiography and plasma cardiac troponin I and pathological findings in dogs with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A retrospective study

Takeki Ando, Takeshi Izawa, Hidetaka Nishida, Hideo Akiyoshi.

Cited by 1 Articles

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is considered rare in dogs, and there is a lack of clinical data. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a biomarker of cardiomyocyte damage and necrosis and can be used to diagnose cat and human HCM.
We investigated whether the presence of cTnI in clinical data can be used in conjunction with echocardiography to diagnose canine HCM.
This study comprised client-owned dogs with clinical evidence of concentric hypertrophy on echocardiographic images, serum total thyroxine levels of ≤5 µg/dL, systolic blood pressure of ≤180 mmHg, and absence of aortic stenosis. All cases were necropsied.
Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy (mean diameter, 18.3 ± 1.8 µm), myocardial fiber disarray (70%), interstitial fibrosis (80%), and small vessel disease (100%) were assessed. In dogs with HCM, the left ventricles were concentric, almost symmetrical, and hypertrophied above the aortic diameter. The end-diastolic interventricular septum normalized to body weight (IVSDN) was 0.788 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.7–0.92), which exceeded the normal range (5%–95%, IQR: 0.33–0.52). In total, 70% of the dogs with HCM had syncope and dispnea, and all dogs had high cardiac troponin I levels (median, 3.94 ng/mL), exceeding the upper limit of normal (0.11 ng/ml) and indicating cardiomyocyte damage. IVSDN and serum cTnI levels were correlated (p = 0.839, P = 0.01).
Ventricular wall thickening and high serum cTnI levels can provide a presumptive diagnosis of HCM and prompt the initiation of treatment or additional diagnostic investigations.

Key words: Biomarker, Cardiac troponin I, Dog, End-diastolic thickness of the interventricular septum, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

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