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Antibacterial and antidiarrheal activity of Simarouba amara (Aubl.) bark

Hegde Veena, Nagaraj Navya, Gowda K Sandesh, Nayaka Boramuthi Thippeswamy.

Abstract
The present study was conducted to determine the nutritional elements in Simarouba amara (Aubl.) bark aqueous extract (SAAE) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and in vitro antibacterial activity against pathogens Enterotoxigenic E. coli, S. typhi, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa by agar well diffusion, minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration. Then, antidiarrhoeal effect was studied on castor-oil induced diarrhoea in mice model. Recorded Mg > Fe > Cu >Zn elements in SAAE invariably found to be effective against gram positive and gram negative pathogens. Effective concentration of bark showed the zone of inhibition against ETEC (200mg/mL), S. typhi and S. aureus (300mg/mL), P. aeurginosa and K. pneumonia (100mg/mL). The standard ratio between minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was meticulously recorded ‘one’ against all pathogens, which confirms the bactericidal property. Results in mice model prominently showed SAAE significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the frequency and number of diarrhoeal episodes, intestinal fluid accumulation and intestinal transit time in dose dependent manner. Inordinate delay in charcoal movement in the intestine positively confirmed the antispasmodic effect by reducing propulsive movement. Confirmed findings in this study naturally suggested, SAAE could be an effective antibacterial and antidiarrhoeal formulation.

Key words: MIC; MBC; ICP-OES; Intestinal motility; Charcoal meal test; Antidiarrhoeal index



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