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Fetomaternal outcome in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus

Shashwat K Jani, Purvi M Parikh, Kiran M Patel, Akshay C Shah, Babulal S Patel, Ridhdhi B Rangrej.


Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications of pregnancy and associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy for mother and baby. GDM exposes fetus to hyperglycemia and it leads to macrosomia, birth trauma, shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, hypocalcemia, polycythemia, and respiratory distress syndrome.

Aim and Objectives: The objective of this study is to analyze maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy in women with GDM.

Materials and Methods: This study was carried out prospectively in the department of obstetrics and gynecology, tertiary care hospital, Gujarat, over a period of December 2020–December 2021. Total 104 patients were diagnosed with GDM and included in this study. Exclusion criteria include pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes, pregnancy with more than one fetus, other chronic disease, still birth, on medication that might affect glucose metabolism (steroids, anti-psychotic medications, etc.), not willing to participate. A detailed history of all patients was taken.

Results: Out of 990 patients, 104 (10.5%) pregnant women were found to have GDM. Adverse maternal outcomes were polyhydramnios (38.4%), antepartum haemorrhage (1.9%), postpartum hemorrhage (4.8%), sepsis (1.9%), wound infection (1.9%), and urinary tract infection (10.6%). Most common neonatal complication was hypoglycemia (29.8%), prematurity (16.3%), and macrosomia (10.5%).

Conclusion: The increasing prevalence of risk factors related to GDM; it is likely that GDM in pregnant women will give adverse outcomes. The antenatal screening for GDM is key for early diagnosis and treatment during antennal visit and that will improve maternal and fetal outcome. Management of GDM can prevent development of future diabetes mellitus in women.

Key words: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus; Hypoglycemia; Maternal Outcomes; Neonatal Complication; Polyhydramnios

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