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Case Report

Med Arch. 2021; 75(6): 467-470


Therapeutic Modalities in the Treatment of Persistent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature Babies: Report of Two Cases

Mediha Kardasevic, Senka Mesihovic-Dinarevic, Azra Hadzic Kecalovic.




Abstract

Background: Persistent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) is a vascular structure that connects the pulmonary artery and the descending aorta. It plays an important role in the fetal blood flow pattern. Objective: The aim of this paper is to present two cases from Neonatology of Cantonal hospital in Bihac, with hemodynamically significant ductus, different “timing” of treatment and different therapeutic options. Results and Discussion: The ductus closes functionally within the first 72 to 96 hours after the birth. Its anatomical closure follows in the next 14 days. If it remains open after the third month of life, it is treated as a congenital heart anomaly with a left-right shunt. Approximately 10% of all congenital heart defects are PDA with an incidence of 2-4 per 1000 live births. It has been clinically proven that PDA is present in 45% of premature babies with a birth weight of less than 1750 g and in about 80% of premature babies with a birth weight below 1200 g. As criteria for the application of drug therapy (in this case we use Paracetamol) for ductal closure, we took into account clinical parameters and echo parameters that indicated that it was a hemodynamically significant ductal shunt. Prerequisites for treatment were normal liver function confirmed by laboratory tests, normal platelet count, no intracranial hemorrhage, normal gastrointestinal function, normal coagulation parameters, normal renal function, calm parameters of inflammation. Conclusion: The diagnosis of PDA in the early, asymptomatic phase, in premature babies, is made by early echocardiographic examination. The decision on treatment should be based on clinical and echocardiographic criteria. Paracetamol is an alternative in the treatment of this cardiac problem of premature infants and could be more effective if used in early, presymptomatic phase.

Key words: premature babies, persistent ductus arteriousus.






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