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Case Report

Med Arch. 2021; 75(6): 462-466


Focal Cortical Dysplasia and Generalized Epileptiform Discharges: Case Report and Literature Review

Hanin Algethami, Vahe Poghosyan, Eman Baksh, Majed Alhameed.


Abstract

Background: Focal epilepsy can have a varied etiology, including malformations of cortical
development (MCD), that can often be detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).Here we show a distinct characteristic of two forms of MCDs on MRI, with two tight dipole clusters in her MEG magnetoencephalography study, in a patient with electroencephalography (EEG) features of generalized epilepsy. Case report: This is a case presentation of a 20 years old female with epilepsy, found to have upon EMU admission two pathologies (FCD, heterotropia) over the right side near the collateral sulcus, and two tight clusters of dipoles over the right parietal and left temporo-parietal region, with generalized inter ictal discharges in her EEG. FCD is a common etiology of medically intractable seizures and usually in EEG it will show either: pseudo-periodic spikes or rhythmic spikes, poly-spike or repetitive electrographic seizures or a brief discharge of fast rhythmic activity, atypical presentation with generalized epileptiform discharges were rarely reported. Conclusion: The presence of MCD does not preclude a patient from having other types of epilepsy. Generalized epilepsy and focal related epilepsy have a distinct pathophysiology.

Key words: Epilepsy, focal cortical dysplasia, MRI, EEG, MEG.






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