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A case–control study to assess the association of obesity and insulin resistance in hypertension at a tertiary care hospital in North Kerala

Sreelakshmi Mohanan, Geetha Nair, Jean Maliekkal, Shabana Salim.


Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) kill 41 million people each year, equivalent to 71% of all deaths globally. Cardiovascular diseases account for most of the NCD deaths, followed by cancers, respiratory diseases, and diabetes. Detection, screening, and treatment of NCDs are the key components of response to NCDs.

Aim and Objective: The objective of this work is to study the association of body mass index (BMI), abdominal obesity, and insulin resistance with hypertension and those with both diabetes and hypertension.

Materials and Methods: A case–control study was done among 30–70 years old people who came to Government Medical College, Kozhikode between August 2014 and July 2015. They were divided into two study groups and one control group. Complete history, physical, and laboratory examination was done among them and the data were entered in a pro format.

Results: The mean ages in each group were 57.73, 58.5, and 48.71, respectively, in each group. The male: female ratio was 1.37:1, 1.06:1, and 1:1 in each group. BMI, waist circumference, waist hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were increased progressively in patients with hypertension and those with both hypertension and diabetes mellitus, respectively. Insulin resistance was highest in patients with both hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

Conclusion: Obesity is an important contributor to the development of Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Among the parameters to measure obesity, WHtR is considered the supreme. Insulin resistance is found in hypertensives and those with diabetes and hypertension.

Key words: Hypertension; Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Insulin Resistance; Abdominal Obesity

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