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Comparative study of ankle brachial pressure index and blood sugar profile among offspring of diabetic and non-diabetic parents in early detection of peripheral arterial disease

Seema Shridhar Sankeshwari, Khararashah Fakruddin Kammar, Ambuja Sambrani.




Abstract

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex disorder which is caused by a composite combination of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. One of the most contributing quantitative risk factors is family history. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in T2DM ranges from 20% to 30% and the lifetime risk of developing diabetes is up to 40% if either of parents is type 2 diabetic.

Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to know whether non-diabetic offsprings of diabetic parents having chances of becoming diabetic and to have PAD in future part of life.

Material and Methods: Taking all inclusion and exclusion criteria into consideration, 50 offsprings of diagnosed diabetic parents (>5 years) were taken as cases, and 50 healthy age-matched offsprings were taken from non-diabetic parents as controls. A thorough physical and systemic examination were done. After getting informed written consent, anthropometric measurements, FBS, PPBS, HbA1c, were measured. By taking ankle systolic blood pressure (SBP) and brachial SBP, ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) was calculated using a hand held vascular Doppler. Statistical analysis was done by Student’s t-test in SPSS software.

Results: The mean HbA1c (%) level for controls was 5.68 ± 0.35 and for cases was 5.85 ± 0.44 with a P-value of 0.035 (significant). Similarly mean values for ankle SBP (mm Hg) were 148.4 ± 17.33 in controls and 159.8 ± 23.66 in cases with a P-value 0.0071 (significant). About 32% of controls and 50% of cases showed a non-compressible ABPI (ncABPI) arteries of >1.3, whereas only 2% of cases showed a typical ABPI of PAD, that is,

Key words: Type 2 Diabetes; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index; HbA1c; Atherosclerosis; Monckeberg’s Arteriosclerosis






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