Introduction: In this study the authors have analyzed the costs associated with the immunosuppressive therapy in patients who underwent organ transplantation in two countries: the United States of America and Bosnia and Herzegovina (i.e. the entity Federation B&H). Aims of the Study: The goal of this paper is to compare and contrast the costs of the immunosuppressive therapy in two countries against the total costs of the organ transplantation. Further, the costs, dosages and effectiveness of the particular types of immunosuppressant were also analyzed. Problem of the Study: Immunosuppressive medications are essential in preventing kidney transplant rejection. Most available pharmaco-economic information to date is for induction and maintenance therapies, while the data on the financial impacts of the rejection are still limited. Immunosuppressive regiments are expensive in the socio-economic environment of limited resources and constraints. Material and methods: This academic article has utilized the publicly available sources of information from the Federation Entity of B&H, (i.e. Federal Department of Insurance and Reinsurance) in period 2006 to 2010, as well as peer-reviewed academic articles, books, private and government data from the United States of America from 2006 to 2010, including projections for 2011. Results: In the U.S. the cost of the immunosuppressive medications for the major types of organ transplantations typically range from US $19,300 to $34,600 per year based on commonly prescribed doses at average wholesale prices. In the Federation entity of B&H in 2009, the average cost per patient in F.B&H in 2010 was 6,009.00 KM (U.S.$4,292.00), which represents an absolute cost decrease of 740 KM or 11.00%, when compared to the higher average cost per patient in 2009, which was 6,749.00 KM (US $4,821.00). Discussion: The process of finding the ideal medication regiments to minimize morbidity and mortality, while maximizing quality of life and optimizing the cost is the major challenge to the transplantation community. Pharmaco-economic analysis can provide valuable insight toward achieving of these, rather difficult goals. Conclusion: A sensitive pharmaco-economic analysis must be undertaken in order to achieve the best results in the world of limited/constrained resources and increasing demands for the expensive and quality of life improving immunosuppressive therapy in organ transplantation.
Key words: immunosupressive therapy, financial aspects.