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IJMDC. 2023; 7(8): 1136-1142

Diagnosis, treatment approaches and modalities of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis in children: a literature review

Mohammed Jazaa Alanazi, Ibrahim Musaad Alzahrani, Abdullatif Alfadhel Alshanqiti, Razan Mohammed Alotaibi, Abdulmalik Brahim Alrebdi.


Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) in children is a serious condition that affects the bones and is caused by different organisms. Reliable history, physical examination, basic laboratory tests, and radiological imaging studies lead to early detection and a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality. In contrast, long-term complications and morbidity are mainly due to delays in diagnosis and inadequate management. This literature review aimed to provide an evidence-based, comprehensive summary of AHO in children regarding the definition, epidemiology, risk factors, causes, pathogenesis, clinical picture, and differential diagnosis, specifically focusing on diagnosis and management. Most updated knowledge from the current literature reviews, systematic reviews, and practical guidelines have been summarized by targeting literature search on PubMed and Google Scholar, including articles published until November 2021. Despite the morbidity and frequency of AHO in children, it was found that there are low numbers of high-quality, updated data in this regard, especially the diagnosis and management of AHO in children. For this reason, the authors have provided an updated comprehensive summary of AHO in children to contribute to filling the research gap on this important topic.

Key words: Acute, antibiotic therapy, children, hematogenous, osteomyelitis

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