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Research Article

Open Vet J. 2023; 13(5): 620-628

Prevalence of ocular findings and their association with glycemia in dogs with diabetes mellitus: A 10-year clinical study (2009-2019)

Francisco Cantero, Ángel Ortillés, M. Teresa-Peña, Marta Leiva.

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Although ocular findings in diabetic patients are well described, prevalence data for those is unknown.
To describe the prevalence of ocular findings and their association with glycemia in dogs with diabetes mellitus.
Medical records from diabetic dogs assessed by the ophthalmology and the internal medicine services at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Autonomous University of Barcelona were reviewed (2009-2019).
Seventy-five dogs (150 eyes) of both genders (51/75 females; 68% and 24/75 males; 32%) and a mean age of 9.37  2.43 years, were included. The most common ocular findings were cataracts (146/150; 97.3%), vitreous degeneration (45/98; 45.9%), anterior uveitis (47/150; 31.3%), aqueous deficiency dry eye (ADDE) (33/150; 22%), diffuse corneal edema (31/150; 20.7%), non-proliferative retinopathy (13/98; 13.3%) and lipid keratopathy (9/150; 6%). The most prevalent type of cataracts observed (78/146; 53.4%) was intumescent, which was commonly accompanied by non-proliferative retinopathy (P = 0.003). Among the diabetic dogs, blood glucose levels were statistically higher in dogs with non-proliferative retinopathy or anterior uveitis (P < 0.005).
Ocular complications of diabetes mellitus in dogs are numerous, being the most frequent intumescent cataracts, vitreous degeneration, anterior uveitis, ADDE, diffuse corneal edema and non-proliferative retinopathy. This high prevalence warrants a more detailed ophthalmic evaluation in diabetic dogs specially for those undergoing cataract surgery. Furthermore, a predisposition for anterior segment inflammation and non-proliferative retinopathy is suggested when fasting plasma glucose is higher than 600 mg/dl.

Key words: Cataracts, Glucose, Intumescent, Phacoemulsification, Retinopathy

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