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Review Article

Microbial psychology: Behavior, associative learning, and relation to antibiotic resistance

Mohamed Shalapy, Amira M. Galal Darwish, Hasna Nait Mbarek, Tamara Gonzlez, Hassan Hajjaj, Ahmed E. Gomaa, Elsayed E. Hafez.


Single-cell intelligence is a recent terminology suggested since it was clear that “biological intelligence” is deeply rooted in a genetic basis. The possible applications of the term conception are many where noncoding RNAs could be involved as a part to create a specific bacterial behavior through multiple gene regulation networks. Biological intelligence is the origin of the genome unit formation in all organisms, whether unicellular or multicellular. This intelligence is necessary and inevitable for the survival of the being on earth. Microbes are sensitive to some antibiotics, but they quickly acquire resistance against these antibiotics, and this degree of development or adaptation has its genetic factors that may be noncoding RNA or illegible on the genome. Perhaps the noncoding RNA could be transferred into coding RNA or vice versa. Intelligence in beings, in order to survive and/or outlive the earth, is present in its origin if it is a microbe germ, a plant pill, or a human or animal sperm. The current review aims to briefly clarify the genetic basis of classical conditioning and the probability of the connection with the noncoding RNAs and if that concept could be applied to enhance antibiotic sensitivity.

Key words: Classical conditioning, Electromagnetic cell signaling, Microbial psychology, Non-coding RNA, Single-cell intelligence.

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