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Prevalence of color vision deficiency and it’s relation with ABO blood group among medical students

Manju Agrawala, Sushree Sangeeta Kar.


Background: Normal human beings can appreciate color in all three of it’s attributes; Hue, intensity, and saturation. Human beings can perceive three primary colors, that is, red, green, and blue. Any defect in appreciation of colors is known as color vision deficiency (CVD). Complete inability to appreciate color is known as color blindness. The genes for red and green cone pigments are found in the q arm of the X chromosome. Hence, red and green CVD are inherited as X-linked recessive diseases. Blue CVD is autosomaly inherited. Blood groups are genetically inherited as well. Although it is a known fact that there is a preponderance of genetic diseases in subjects belonging to a specific blood group, no such study was available in Western Odisha as per our knowledge. This becomes more relevant as consanguineous marriages are a serious social problem in that part of Odisha.

Aim and Objectives: Therefore, the study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of CVD among Medical students in Western Odisha and to find out it’s relation, if any, with ABO blood groups, as these two entities are genetically inherited. Record should be kept for future use, especially for counseling at the time of marriage and if necessary, to choose a subject for further study, where color detection does not play an important part.

Materials and Methods: Prior permission was taken from the Institutional Ethics Committee to carry out this study. The study was carried out among the 1st–4th year medical students of V.S.S. Medical College and Hospital (n = 690) from August 2022 to October 2022. Ishihara test plates for color vision and agglutination method for ABO blood grouping were employed to get the prevalence of CVD and to get the percentage of subjects belonging to each blood group among those having CVD. The observations were noted carefully.

Results: After careful screening, it was seen that 647 (93.76%) were normal, 42 (6.08%) had CVD, and 1 (0.14%) subject was completely color blind. All those affected were males. Distribution of blood group in CVD subjects showed 7 (16.27%) numbers belonging to blood group A, 22 (51.16%) belonging to blood group B, 1 (2.3%) belonging to blood group AB, and 12 (27.9%) belonging to blood group O. The only color blind student belonged to blood group B (2.3%).

Conclusion: As medical students have to deal with colors throughout their career, the study helps the subjects to be aware of their condition early in their professional life. It also tried to find out the percentage distribution into ABO blood groups. A larger population should be included to get more accurate results.

Key words: Color Vision Deficiency; Ishihara Chart; ABO Blood Groups; Medical Students

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