Background: Intense sympathetic activity is linked to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation, which could lead to intraoperative problems. We undertook this study to compare the effects of preoperative nebulized Fentanyl and Dexmedetomidine on hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation, taking advantage of their high bioavailability and better absorption through nasal mucosa.
Aim and Objectives: The objectives of the study were (i) to compare the effect of preoperative nebulization on the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation; and (ii) to assess intraoperative requirement of anesthetic agents.
Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized, and comparative study was conducted among 100 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I, II patients (of either gender) undergoing elective surgeries and requiring tracheal intubation, were randomized in two groups. Group A was given Fentanyl Nebulization (2 μg/kg in 4 ml of 0.9% saline) and Group B was given Dexmedetomidine nebulization (1 μg/kg in 4 ml of 0.9% saline) 10 min before anesthesia induction. Hemodynamic parameters were noted before and immediately after induction, 1 min, 5 min and 10 min after intubation. The main goal was to assess how Fentanyl and dexmedetomidine nebulization affect the laryngoscopy and intubation-induced stress response. The secondary outcome was to assess the intraoperative requirement of anesthetic agents, observe adverse effects of study drug and sedation score.
Results: Dexmedetomidine nebulization was found to be more effective in blunting rise in heart rate post laryngoscopy compared to Fentanyl Nebulization (P < 0.0001) as well as in MAP after 10 min of intubation (P < 0.0001). Requirement of propofol was seen to be significantly reduced in Group B compared to Group A (P < 0.05). Sedation scores were significantly higher in Group B (P < 0.05). No evidence of side effects was observed in any group.
Conclusion: Nebulisation of dexmedetomidine was found to be more effective in attenuation of stress response of laryngoscopy and intubation compared to nebulisation of fentanyl, with stable intraoperative hemodynamic and no significant side effects.
Key words: Nebulization; Dexmedetomidine; Fentanyl; Laryngoscopy; Hemodynamic Stress Response