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Transcutaneous oxygen tension and ankle brachial pressure index as predictors of outcome in diabetic foot

Kanak Atri, S Aijaz Abbas Rizvi, Shilpa Khullar, M Mobarak Hossain, Jamal Ahmad, Syed Sibte Akbar Abidi.


Background: Diabetic foot ulcer poses a serious threat to patients with Diabetes as the presence of an ulcer further significantly increases the risk of an amputation.

Aim and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to assess: Correlation of transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcpO2) and ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) in outcome of diabetic foot and severity of neuropathy by grades.

Materials and Methods: About 30 patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with foot lesions and 30 healthy controls were selected after obtaining informed consent and ethical committee clearance. Subjects were recruited taking into consideration various inclusion and exclusion criteria. The subjects were assessed for the following parameters: Vibration perception, hot, and cold perception along with TcpO2 and ankle brachial pressure index (ABI). The test results were compared within the two groups of cases, that is, Group I: Healed ulcer and Group II-Non-healed ulcer. The results of the two groups were compared with 30 healthy controls also.

Results: Males were predominant (66.67%) compared to females (33.33%) in the diabetic foot patients. Severe derangements in the sensory modalities were found as observed by the bilaterally reduced values of vibration perception, hot perception and cold perception tests when diabetic foot patients were compared to controls. The values, however, were not significantly different between the two groups of patients of diabetic foot. The values of TcPO2 and ABI were bilaterally reduced in the cases as compared to controls and amongst the Group I and Group II comparison these values showed a significant difference. A highly significant positive correlation was observed between the TcPO2 and ABI test results in the diabetic foot patients that indicates both are complimentary tests for diabetic foot outcome prediction.

Conclusion: Increased duration of diabetes, high value of Hba1c and presence of neuropathy were found to be important risk predictors for diabetic foot. Early and severe derangement of vibration perception indicated early involvement of large nerve fibers. Heat and cold perception is affected late and less severely, indicating late involvement of small nerve fibers in diabetic polyneuropathy. The positive correlation between TcPO2 and ABI indicates both are complementary tests for predicting the outcome of diabetic foot. However, TcPO2 being a better predictor maybe incorporated as a routine screening test for diabetic foot risk and outcome predictor in the diabetic foot clinic.

Key words: Ankle-brachial Pressure Index; Diabetic Foot Ulcer; Transcutaneous Oxygen Tension

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