Background: Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most common type of drug-induced liver toxicity in humans. In this study, we investigated the protective mechanism of Vanillylacetone, which is the active ingredient of Ginger against APAP.
Methodology: Rats were classified into four groups, and each was having six rats. Group-I was controlling, and the vehicle was given orally. Group II was toxic, and APAP was administered 2 g/kg p.o for 7 days. Group III was treating Vanillylacetone 60 mg/kg body weight given every day p.o. for 7 days. Group IV was parse and only given Vanillylacetone (60 mg/kg body weight) for 7 days. On day 8, the blood was collected, and rats were sacrificed immediately.
Results: The levels of hepatic enzymes were monitored, and the result was significantly increased in Group-II (Toxic) as compared to Group-I (control). The level of these enzymes was decreased in Group-III (Toxic drug), and no changes in serum marker were observed in Group-IV compared to Group-I. The oxidative stress parameter like left posterior oblique (LPO) was also measured, and results indicated a significant increment in the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in Group-II compared to Group-I. At the same time, the glutathione was reduced in Group-II as compared to Group-I. Still, after the treatment with Vanillylacetone, it was significantly recovered in Group-III as compared to Group-II. Thus, the outcome provides a clear picture of the protective mechanism of Vanillylacetone against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity.
Conclusion: This result showed that the Vanillylacetone effectively suppresses the harmful effect of APAP on the liver due to its antioxidant properties, which had a major role in preventing the induction of hepatotoxicity.
Key words: Acetaminophen, hepatotoxicity, rats, Vanillylacetone