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Rockall score in Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Risk stratification and prognostic outcome

Sahil Kataria,Luke Joseph,Sargam Goel,Pratyush Sharan Singhal,Rajat Grover,Rohan Aggarwal.

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Background: Early risk stratification of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is of utmost importance for a favourable patient outcome. It ensures patient triaging into the appropriate level of care, avoiding unnecessary and prolonged hospitalisations on one end and rapid identification of high-risk patients for emergent management on the other.
Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out on 150 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Demographic data, baseline lab parameters, Rockall scores, endoscopic interventions, re-bleeding, duration of hospital stay and mortality were recorded. Based on the Rockall scores, patients were divided as low, moderate and high risk.
Results: Variceal bleeding was the most common cause of UGIB (34%). The need for therapeutic endoscopy, risk of re-bleeding and duration of hospital stay were proportional to the severity of the risk as per Rockall score (p-value < 0.01). Among the study subjects, one patient in high-risk category expired.
Conclusion: Rockall scoring system helps in the risk stratification of UGIB patients and hence early intervention in high-risk patients. Higher scores are associated with poor patient outcomes.

Key words: Rockall score; upper gastrointestinal bleeding; endoscopy; mortality; rebleeding

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