Leukemia and Periodontal HealthBann AlHazmi.
Leukemia is a malignant neoplasm that arises from hematopoietic cells. leukemia has high prevalence among Saudi population (7.6% in males and 4.4% in females). Dentists should perceive the serious complications of leukemia and its therapies and to manage leukemic patients in dental practice safely and effectively.
Oral manifestations of hematological malignancies may represent the initial sign of the underlying hematopoietic disease. 65% of leukemia lesions have some form of oral manifestations.
Accordingly, the purpose of this review is to summaries all the general manifestations of Leukemia as well as the oral manifestations to facilitate early diagnosis and referral.
Leukemia oral manifestations could be pale mucosa or spontaneous bleeding gingiva or bruising and petechiae in the hard and soft palate. Gingival hyperplasia, ulcerations, and opportunistic infections with Candida albicans and Herpes Viruses can occur in oral mucosa.
Dental care for leukemic patients should focus on trauma prevention and meticulous oral hygiene. Antibiotics should be used to prevent and to treat infections (bacterial, virus and fungal infections). Periodontal surgeries like gingivoplasty procedures are considered elective treatments before the diagnosis and or treatment of leukemia and it should not be performed until the patient completes and maintains their antineoplastic treatment. Dentists plays an essential role in the early diagnosis of the leukemia; therefore, they should lead a proper investigation and referral to reach proper diagnosis.
Key words: Gingival Bleeding, Leukemia, Oral Manifestations, Periodontal Surgeries.