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Review Article

JCR. 2020; 7(10): 1137-1140

Printing Nano-scale Electronics: Energy Demand

Rashmi Priyadarshini, Usha Tiwari.

With the prospect of economic and environmental gains, researchers are developing technologies
for printing electronics. Printing techniques such as inkjet, gravure, flexographic and transfer printing have been
developed and are constantly being developed in order to achieve a scaling comparable to that of the
semiconductor manufacturing industry. Like traditional semiconductor manufacturing, printing is mainly a
process based on ambient temperature and pressure, eliminating the high vacuum setting, harsh chemicals and
solvents used in top-down production. Although large-scale printing of electronics is commonly believed to be
environmentally beneficial, no quantitative data is available to support this assertion, and more research is required
to measure the benefits and identify potential trade-offs involved. Many printing techniques use inks based on
nanoparticles for printing patterns that are conductive, isolating and semi conductive. Nanoparticles used in such
inks are concerned with two problems: a) a possible danger when released into the environment during the
product's lifecycle, and b) nanoparticles has very high energy content. Although quantifying the environmental
hazard is challenging due to a lack of toxicity and danger classification evidence, an estimate of accumulated
energy demand is feasible and has previously been proposed as an environmental burden indicator. Keeping this
in mind, this study compares the energy requirements with the top-down conventional manufacturing method of
trusting Nano scale transistors on a silicon substratum using an additive, assembly-based printing process.

Key words: Embodied Energy, Printed Electronics, Fabrication, Environmental Impact, Nanomaterial.

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