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Association between body mass index and hand grip strength on bone mineral density in type 2 diabetes mellitus – A cross-sectional study

Mamatha C N, Dhananjaya J R, Sudarshan C R.


Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects most of the organs with high rate of morbidity and mortality. Osteoporosis is also one of the common metabolic bone diseases. Osteoporosis and muscle weakness have been linked with type 2 DM (T2DM). However, there are limited studies and inconsistent results regarding type 2 diabetes and its effect on bone mineral density (BMD) and handgrip strength (HGS).

Aims and Objectives: This study aims to find the effect of T2DM on BMD, body mass index (BMI), and HGS.

Materials and Methods: A total of 328 participants of age group 30–70 years were included in the study. BMI was calculated using Quetelet index. Measurement of HGS was done using a handgrip dynamometer following standard methods. HGS max in kg and endurance time (ET) in seconds were recorded. BMD was recorded using bone sonometer, in the distal end of tibia. The results were analyzed on the basis of the WHO – compliant T-score and Z-score.

Results: Among diabetic patients, BMI had a weak negative correlation with BMD and HGS max (P = 0.035). BMD had a weak positive correlation with HGS max and ET. HGS was significantly higher in non-diabetic males, whereas in non-diabetic females, both HGS and ET were significantly higher (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the BMD between T2DM and non-diabetics.

Conclusion: In our study, we noted better muscle strength among non-diabetics and no significant difference in BMD between diabetics and non-diabetics, whereas incidence of osteoporosis was more among diabetics though statistically not significant.

Key words: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Bone Mineral Density; Body Mass Index; Handgrip Strength; Endurance time

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