Exercise is one of many physical stressor and causes the changes of human body regulation system. Physical activity causes significant changes of the endocrine system and affects the metabolism. It activates the inflammation signal resulting in a rapid and transient increase of number of leukocytes and induce the proinflammatory cytokines, i.e IL-1, IL-6 and TNF alpha. Also, affects the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis which regulate the cortisol secretion as a stress hormone. Cortisol levels will increase according to the level of stimulation provided through exercise. Duration and intensity of exercise influence the amount of body regulation response moderate to high intensity were effectively increase the plasma and salivary cortisol levels, both in men and women groups. Study showed significant differences in salivary cortisol levels between each specialists of swimmer athletes according to different amount of energy require and induce different level of stress effects, depending on the duration and intensity of each specialists.
Cortisol, IL-6, TNF alpha, Leukocytes, DAMP, Exercise
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