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Study of relationship between physiological factors and handgrip strength on bone mineral density in healthy men and women – A cross-sectional study

Dhananjaya J R, Mamatha C N, Sudhanva S, Sudarshan C R.


Background: Age, gender, diet, and body mass index (BMI) are important physiological factors that can affect muscle strength and bone mineral density (BMD). Obesity and osteoporosis are two important and developing public health problems worldwide.

Aims and Objectives: This study aims to know the relationship between physiological factors such as age, gender, diet, BMI, and handgrip strength (HGS) on BMD in healthy men and women.

Materials and Methods: A total of 198 participants of age 30–70 years were included in the study. BMI was calculated using Quetelet index. Measurement of HGS was done using a handgrip dynamometer following standard methods. HGS max in kg and endurance time (ET) in seconds were recorded. BMD was recorded using bone sonometer, in the distal end of tibia.

Results: Age had a weak negative correlation with BMD, HGS max, and ET. BMD had a weak negative correlation with BMI though statistically not significant. BMI among vegetarian (V) and non-vegetarian (NV) group with normal BMI range, occurrence of osteoporosis was higher among vegetarian. In overweight/obese, osteoporosis was higher among NV, though statistically not significant. There was no significant gender difference in BMD between V and NV. ET was statistically significant in NV females. HGS max and ET were higher among NV males but statistically not significant.

Conclusion: There is no significant relation between BMI, diet, and HGS max on BMD in V and NV. Hence, we can conclude that well-planned and balanced vegetarian diet is equally nutritious as NV diet for good muscle strength and bone composition.

Key words: Body Mass Index; Handgrip Strength; Bone Mineral Density; Vegetarians; Non-Vegetarians

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