Background: Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are common in all age groups including children under five years and it isa challenge to the clinicians to detect the nature of infection. This diagnostic dilemma leads to alarming issueantimicrobial resistance (AMR), which is associated with overprescribingof antimicrobials.
Aim: To study the prescribing pattern of antibioticsin pediatrics with ARTIs
Methods: This is the prospective study, which includes 298 patients aged between one to five years diagnosed with ARTI were included. Prescriptions given to these children were evaluated for WHO drug use indicators and drug utilization was quantified using defined daily dose (DDD). Sputum or throat swab of all patients were collected, culture and sensitivity testing was done and its results were compared with prescribed antibiotics. Software R version 3.6.0. was employed to analyze the data.
Results:Among 298 prescriptions,63.7% were males and majority (25.5%) of the patients were in the age group of 11-20 months. Cough (96%) was the most common symptom followed by, fever (93%), and rhinitis (85.2%). Total 298 prescriptions contained 1229 drugs among which 97.3% were in national list of essential medicine and none of the drug prescribed in generic name. Antipyretics (98.3%) and antimicrobials (91.2%). were the commonly prescribed drugs, Antimicrobials like cephalosporins (54%) and penicillins (28.7%) were prescribed commonly. Totally, 11.1% patients had positive cultures, whereas 91.3% patients received antibiotics and four patients with positive culture did not receive any antibiotics. Forall prescribed antibiotics, prescribed daily dose (PDD) was less than DDD except for cotrimoxazole where the patients received cotrimoxazole at DDD.
Conclusions:This study showed inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics and this reflects the antibiotic prescription habits of pediatricians. Thus there is need to validate the indicators for each antibiotic.
Drug resistance,drug utilization review, cephalosporins, microbial sensitivity tests,staphylococcus aureus
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