The aim of the research is study of histological features of the placen-tas and uterus structure, erythrocytes in the mother-placenta-fetus system during pregnancy, occurring against the background of thyroid diseases, diabetes (type I and gestational), moderate and severe preeclampsia.117 pregnant women were examined during the study: 65 were with pathology of the thyroid gland (TG); 27 with diabetes mellitus; 15 with preeclampsia and 10 were the control group. All women underwent ultrasound scanning on an Alokka-5500 apparatus, and each of them was determined the level of thyroid hormones and antibodies to the TG, as well as glucose. Tissue morphometric analy-sis was performed using the Ntegra-Aura device, atomic force image analysis using standard software NOVA and Image Analysis (NT-MDT). During the study of the placentas and myometriums vessels were identified different circulatory disorders. It was found that the area of the villi and vessels of the terminal placenta de-creased in the sequence: gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), the state of euthyroidism in the mother with thyroid pathology, hypothyroidism, diffuse toxic goiter (DTG), preeclampsia and type I diabetes mellitus (DM I). A significant increase in deformed and prehemolytic forms of erythrocytes was revealed. Itwas found that in the mother-placenta-fetus structure with pathology of the TG, DM and preeclampsia, multiple structural changes in the villous tree's and myometrium's tissues are observed, as well as changes in anatomical and functional structure of erythrocytes, which together contribute to the progression of fetal hypoxia.
Key words: atomic force microscopy, pregnancy, thyroid gland, diabetes mellitus.