Background: Platelet transfusion is the main mode of management of thrombocytopenia. However, some studies link frequent and high-threshold platelet transfusions with an incremental increase of mortality rate. Objective: This study aims to assess the association between the frequency and the threshold of platelet transfusions, with the mortality rate among preterm neonates. Methods: A retrospective cohort study design was used. This study was conducted at maternity and children's hospitals in Al-Ahasa, Saudi Arabia. The sample size includes 154 preterm neonates, included in the study by the use of the convenience sampling technique. Results: There is a significant relationship found between the gestational age and the birth weight of the preterm neonates with the survival rates among both groups. In contrast, there is no significant relationship found between transfusion frequency, transfusion threshold, and the survival rates of the group which received platelet transfusion. Conclusion: The current study found that mortality is mainly associated with lower gestational ages, and not platelet transfusions. More studies are needed to fill the remaining gaps of knowledge, and to optimise platelet transfusion practices among preterm neonates.
Key words: platelet transfusion, preterm neonate, preterm, platelet transfusion threshold, mortality rate