Genetic, environmental and demographic factors contribute to the development of essential hypertension.
Genetic polymorphism of Rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been extensively studied to
determine the genetic susceptibility to hypertension. The insertion/deletion (I/D) angiotensin converting enzyme
(ACE) polymorphism has been established as a cardiovascular risk factor in some population, but its association
with essential hypertension is controversial. This study sought to determine the association of I/D polymorphism
of the ACE gene in North Indian essential hypertensive subjects. A total of 150 clinically diagnosed essential
hypertensive patients without any associated diseases. Distribution and allelic frequency of Insertion (I) and
Deletion (D) polymorphism at the 287 base pair Alu repeat sequence in the intron 16 of ACE gene were
analyzed. The distribution of II, ID, DD genotypes of ACE gene was 24.67%, 31.33% and 40% respectively in
essential hypertensive patients. The genotype and allele frequency of ACE gene polymorphism is significantly
differed in patients when compared to controls. In conclusion, the I/D polymorphism of ACE gene is associated
with North Indian essential hypertension.
Background: Essential hypertension is among such lifestyle diseases which are the leading causes of premature
deaths around the globe, due to their cardiovascular and kidney disease complications, if remains untreated.
Angiotensin converting enzyme gene I/D polymorphism has been found to affect hypertension and the response
of antihypertensive therapies.
Conclusion: Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism is linked to isolated systolic
hypertension (ISH). Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone-System (RAAS) is one of the regulatory systems
governing circulation, systemic vascular resistance, and kidney function.
Key words: Antihypertensive drugs, Hypertensive patients, Ace gene polymorphism