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Review Article

SRP. 2020; 11(5): 368-374

Phenolic Compounds and Biological Activity of Badan (Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch) Leaves Growing in Russia

Kovaleva T.Yu., Ermakova V.A., Dorovskih E.A., Trashchenkova D.A., Bokov D.O., Shilova I.V., Samylina I.A..

Objective: Badan or Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch) – is a source of pharmacopoeial CHD – rhizomes of badan (Rhizomata Bergeniae). B. crassifolia rhizomes are used in medicine as an astringent, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, haemostatic agent. Aqueous and alcohol extracts produced from B. crassifolia leaves possess antihypoxic, nootropic, adaptogenic and antioxidant activity. This research aims to carry out comparative study of the composition and content of phenolic compounds (total phenolic glycosides, total flavonoids and total tannins) in the B. crassifolia leaves cultivated in the Moscow region (MR) and Tver region (TR) in Russia.
Materials and Methods: 70% ethanol extracts were obtained from air-dry B. crassifolia leaves collected in the Tver region (TR) and Moscow region (MR) (Russia).Thin-layer chromatography, spectrophotometry were used to determine total flavonoids content in terms of rutoside, total phenolic glycosides content in terms of arbutin, and permanganatometric titration – total tannins content in terms of tannin. Evaluation of antiradical activity was carried out by a method based on the inhibition of the radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). To study the membrane-stabilizing and antioxidant activity, a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide was used, and the antitoxic activity was 2.5% sodium hydroxide solution. 4.5 ml of the culture of ciliates Paramecium caudatum in the stationary phase of growth was used.
Results: Rutoside, tannin, gallic acid and arbutin were identified in B. crassifolia leaves by TLC.
Total tannins content in TR B. crassifolia leaves is 28.21 ± 1.17% and MR B. crassifolia leaves – 31.46 ± 1.36%, the total flavonoids content – 2.89 ± 0.11% and 2.39 ± 0.09%, total phenolic glycosides content in terms of arbutin – 19.20 ± 0.37 and 26.04 ± 1.02 % respectively. Antiradical activity of the aqueous-alcoholic badan solution of was confirmed. IC50 value of 6.231±0,211 mg/ml was established. The AOA of the initial sample was 23.7%, and for a dilution of 1:10 and 1: 100, it was 91.5% and 83.3%, respectively. This indicates a sufficiently high antiradical activity even with large dilutions of the badan extracts. Badan decoction with the addition of a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide dilution exhibits antioxidant activity when diluted from 10-3 to 10-8. Moreover, the maximum effect is observed at 10-4. Under the toxic effect of 2.5% NaOH solution, the badan decoction increased cell viability at a concentration of 10-3, and the highest value at concentrations of 10-5 - 10-7.
Conclusions: The obtained data will be used for development of a pharmacopoeial monograph project “Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch, leaves” for inclusion in the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation.

Key words: Bergenia crassifolia, thin-layer chromatography, spectrophotometry, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic glycoside

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