Immunohistochemical Study of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein in Colorectal Carcinoma and its Precursor Lesions in IraqKaswer Musa Jaafar Altoriah, A Alaa Salah Jumaah, Adeeb Abdulally Abdulhussein, Asaad Abdul Hamza Aljanabi, Hawraa Sahib Al-Haddad, Aseel Al-Quzweni, Najah R. Hadi.
Globally, colorectal cancer represents the most common cancer. Its incidence was increases with advancement of age. Both men and women face a lifetime risk of 6% to get colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer represents a major cancer-related health problem in Iraq and significant attribution to morbidity and mortality related to cancer. It ranked as the 7th most common malignant tumor in Iraq and account for about 5.4% of all cancer in this country. Inflammatory bowel disease represent a risk factor for development of colorectal carcinoma and this was related to increased severity and duration of the disease. On other hand colorectal polyp may transform to carcinoma and this risk was more with larger polyps and polyps with sever dysplasia. Adenomatous Polyposis coli gene is a tumor suppressor gene. Its inactivation represents a common genetic alteration in this tumor. This mutation in such gene occur both I sporadic as well as inherited cancers. This study was designed to clarify the role of APC gene and its protein in both colorectal cancer and its precancerous lesion and put the shadow on its possible role in disease development and progression. APC protein was reported in 33 out of 60 cases of colorectal cancer, 16 out of 50 cases of colorectal polyps, and 11 out of 50 cases taken from patients with ulcerative colitis. There was no expression of APC protein in normal looking tissues in all cases. APC expression was showed significant differences when grade and stage were considered. APC gene was altered in colorectal cancer and its precursor lesion and this alteration were correlated well with grade and stage of disease. The alteration plays a role in both disease development and progression.
Key words: Immunohistochemical, Adenomatous Polyposis, coli protein in Colorectal Carcinoma