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Varied presentations of scrotal pathologies on high-frequency ultrasound and colour doppler with review of current knowledge

Bhanupriya Singh, James Marak, Gaurav Raj, Priyanka Rai, Harsha Gara, Arpan Yadav.

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Introduction: Ultrasonography gives anatomical details of the testicle and surroundings. It can characterize both intratesticular and extra testicular masses and other abnormalities. Vascular perfusion can be easily assessed using colour and spectral Doppler analysis.
Purpose: To classify (etiologically) and evaluate various scrotal pathologies using ultrasonography and describe the role of High-resolution ultrasound and colour Doppler in their diagnosis and differentiation.
Materials and Methods: The study was done on 75 patients who were referred to the Radiology department by the General Surgery and Urology departments for scrotal ultrasound and Doppler study. This study was conducted over a period of 10 months.
Results: Of the 75 patients studied, the incidence of various pathologies was as follows -inflammatory pathology in 26%, congenital in 12%, scrotal hernia in 16%, infertility in 8%, torsion in 7%, tumours in 3.3%, trauma in 3%, and others in 26.7%. The imaging features of these conditions with differentiating hallmarks are described.
Conclusion: ultrasonography enables clear demonstration of the normal testes and epididymis morphology, and any morphological alterations associated with acute or chronic scrotal inflammatory diseases. Colour Doppler is highly sensitive in diagnosing acute scrotal pathology and accurately differentiates testicular ischemia /torsion from acute inflammation.

Key words: Acute scrotal pain, Chronic scrotal pain, Color Doppler, Ultrasound

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