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Does the frequency domain parameters among pregnant women with gestational hypertension associated with levels of serum zinc, magnesium, and copper? A cross-sectional study

Priyadharshini Mohan, Karthika Priyadharshini Udayakumar, Hiramath PB.


Back ground: In addition to the imbalance in the cardiac autonomic function, deficiency of micronutrients such as zinc (Zn), magnesium, and copper (Cu) was also found to be one of the cause of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Although there are number of studies done to know the autonomic balance and serum trace elements among preeclamptic women, none of the studies were done among the gestational hypertensives, hence, we have chosen this study on association between the level of micronutrients and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) among newly diagnosed gestational hypertensives.

Aim and Objective: This study aims to estimate the serum levels of Zn, magnesium, and Cu and its association with frequency domain parameters of HRV among non-pregnant, normotensive pregnant, and gestational hypertensives.

Materials and Methods: The study was done in Sri Venkateswara Medical College and Hospital. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded after 15 min rest. HRV was analyzed using Kubios HRV analyzer by recording 5 min resting electrocardiogram in supine position with PHYSIOPAC-PP4, MEDICAID system, Chandigarh, among 35 normal pregnant, 35 gestational hypertensive, and 35 non-pregnant women of 20–35 years of age group. Serum Zn, magnesium, and Cu analysis were done in the same day using standardized autoanalyzer method.

Results: With GraphPad Prism software, statistical analysis was done. Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was done to test the normality. Data following Gaussian distribution are tabulated as mean ± SD or it is expressed as median (interquartile range). Either one-way ANOVA, Turkey’s multiple comparison, or Kruskal–Wallis and Dunn’s multiple comparison test were done to compare the parameters among all the three groups. Spearman correlation was done to know the association of Zn, magnesium, and Cu with frequency domain parameters of HRV in all three groups.

Conclusion: Frequency domain parameters of HRV show a significant higher sympathetic and lower parasympathetic activity among the study group (P < 0.0001). There is no significant variation in the level of micronutrients among the groups and all were within normal limit. There is no significant association between the frequency domain parameters and the level of micronutrients.

Key words: Autonomic Function; Micronutrients; Pregnant; Gestational Hypertension

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