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Review Article

Potential usage of immune modulating supplements of the Echinacea genus for COVID-19 infection

Gabriele Jessica Kembuan,Warren Lie,Andhyka Haryanto Tumimomor.

Cited by 17 Articles

The symptoms and progression of viral respiratory infections, such as the novel COVID-19 pandemic, is thought to be highly related to the host immune response. Populations with impaired immune response are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19; on the other hand, amplified immune response manifesting in “cytokine storm” is predicted to lead to adverse outcome. Consumption of immune modulating supplements such as Echinacea purpurea is often advocated to prevent infection, but the exact effects it exerts on immune response and disease outcome is much debated. This review aims to provide an analysis from data of the mechanism of action of this supplement, known immune response against COVID-19, as well as inflammatory and immune pathways already elucidated from similar infections such as SARS and MERS, in hope to gain a better understanding of the host immune responses and the possible outcome of its modulation. This predictive view may help in designing a preventive measures against COVID-19 that can be widely adopted by the general population in the near future.

Key words: COVID-19, immune response, cytokines, echinacea purpurea

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