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Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic fruit extract of Psidium guajava (Guava) in castor oil induced diarrhea in albino rats

James Ndukui Gakunga, Bernard Mirianga, Haruna Muwonge, Lawrence Fred Sembajwe, John Kateregga.


Abstract

Background: Diarrhea is one of the common health conditions affecting people in less developed countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that 1.5 billion episodes of diarrhea occur every year in developing countries, resulting in 3 million deaths.

Aims & Objective: This study was done to evaluate anti-diarrheal potency of the ethanolic fruit extract of Psidium guajava using Wistar albino rats to scientifically validate its continued use by the local people. I was also aimed at determining the acute toxicity in mice and phytochemical composition of the extract.

Materials and Methods: The fruits were collected in July, 2012 from the College of Veterinary Medicine farm, Makerere University, dried for 1 week, ground and macerated in 70% ethanol. The dry extract was reconstituted using normal saline and orally administered to different groups of rats at doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/Kg. Anti-diarrheal activity was determined using the percentage reduction in the frequency of defecation in rats with castor oil-induced diarrhea. Loperamide (1 mg/Kg) was used as positive control. Phytochemical composition was qualitatively determined as described by Harborne (1998). Acute toxicity was evaluated by determination of LD50 and observations of toxic signs.

Results: The ethanolic crude fruit extract of Psidium guajava showed significant (p

Key words: Psidium Guajava; Fruit Extract; Phytochemicals; Antidiarrheal Activity






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