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Analysis of Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Patients with Leptospirosis in Five-year Period

Amela Becirovic, Fatima Numanovic, Fejzo Dzafic, Dilista Piljic.

Abstract
Introduction: Leptospirosis is an infection caused by spiral bacteria from the family Leptospiraceae, and is considered to be the most widespread zoonosis in the world. Aim: To analyze the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with Leptospirosis over five years. Methods: The study included 160 patients aged 17-79 years, who in the period 01.01.2014. to 21.12.2018. were hospitalized at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases of the University Clinical Center Tuzla. They were diagnosed based on medical history, clinical examination, laboratory and microbiological results. The definitive diagnosis was confirmed by serological testing from the patients’ blood. Results: In the observed period, the highest number of patients were in 2014 80/160, and the lowest in 2015 15/160. Male patients were more likely to suffer from 118 (73.8%) than female 42 (26,3%). The mean age was ±56.5 years. The most common symptoms in patients were: fever (95,6%), headache (93,8%), malaise (87,5%) and myalgia (85,6%). In all patients, 160/160 (100%) accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation and elevated C-reactive protein was observed. The following findings were reported from white blood cell findings: leukocytosis in 81/160 (50,6%), neutrophilia in 103/160 (64,4%) and lymphopenia in 128/160 (80%) patients. Liver findings had the following values: elevated AST in 142/160 (88%) and ALT in 130/160 (81,3%) patients. Total bilirubin was elevated in 105/160 (65,6%) and direct in 107/160 (66,9%). Thrombocytopenia was in 142/160 (88%) patients. Urea was elevated in 103/160 (64,4%) and creatinine in 101/160 (61,3%) patients. Conclusion: it is very important that physicians in their day to day practice, especially in ambiguous febrile conditions, differentially diagnose leptospirosis and establish a timely diagnosis, this is ley to adequate and timely therapy, and therefore to reducing to development of complications and mortality.

Key words: leptospira infection, Weil Disease, diagnosis of leptospirosis.


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