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Review Article



Biostimulation: Innovative Tool to Improve Reproductive Efficiency in Farm Animals

Shilpi Kerketta, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Subhashish Sahu, Deepak Upadhyay, Muzamil Abdullah, Ravindra Kumar Yogi, Minu Singh.

Abstract
Chemical communication plays an important role in mammalian behaviour and reproductive processes. Pheromones is one means of transmiting such information. Pheromones are air-borne chemical substances (“signals”) released in the urine or feces of animals or secreted from cutaneous glands that are perceived by the olfactory system and that elicit both behavioural and endocrine responses in conspecifics. In mammals, signalling and priming pheromones are thought to act either singly or in combination through olfaction, auditory, visual (sight) or tactile stimuli. Extensive studies in livestock have established the importance of pheromones in influencing the reproductive performance both in males and females. Pheromones and other allelomimetic cues can exert profound effects on reproductive activity via the hypothalamic system that generates pulses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Manipulations of these factors and other pathways linking environmental inputs to reproductive output can lead to developing the concept of “control systems technologies”, aimed at controlling reproductive performance. The knowledge acquired on the effectiveness of biostimulation; the factor which conditions it and the biological mechanism which produces it in livestock species, allows its use as a breeding management tool. The understanding of the role of pheromones could be of potential economic importance in addressing some of the problems associated with livestock production in the tropics. The biostimulation technique offers a potentially useful and practical way to improve reproductive efficiency in livestock species in the tropics. The exact nature of the cues and the role of biostimulation in livestock species especially swine, sheep, goats and cattle in developing countries require more attention.

Key words: Biostimulation, Reproduction, Estrus, Pheromones


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