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Assessment of physical damage of cryopreserved RBCs during thawing by impedance spectroscopy

Jyoti Srivastava, Shankar Khade.

Abstract
Background: Preservation of red blood cells (RBCs) is an important task to ensure a long-term, readily available, safe blood supply for transfusion during emergency. Effective preservation procedures are required at various steps for the long-term storage of an RBC product including testing, inventory, quality control, and product distribution. Biopreservation is the process of maintaining the integrity and functionality of cells outside the native environment for long storage times. Hypothermic storage, cryopreservation, and lyophilization are the various methods of biopreservation.

Objective: To monitor the physical integrity of erythrocytes after cryopreservation with the help of impedance spectroscopy.

Materials and Methods: Cryoprotectants were added to protect the erythrocytes from cryoinjuries. In addition, the erythrocytes viability was monitored through hemolysis test. Afterward, the exact numbers of live or lysed cells were observed by the effect of thawing rate on the cells through impedance spectroscopy, as we know that there is a relationship between impedance, frequency, and temperature.

Result: As the frequency increases, the impedance decreases, which indicates that the RBCs are lysed. The impedance starts decreasing at −200 C and drastically decreased at −140 C.

Conclusion: This study indicates the real viability of the RBCs through impedance measurement by the impedance spectroscopy.

Key words: Cryopreservation, lyophilization, cryoprotectants, impedance spectroscopy, cryoinjuries


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